Let me just say that the way Bobby Clinton formulated his "Leadership Emergence Theory" back in the 80s really grates on me. Lots of important elements of leadership development. But he presents it in a Calvinist framework of "I fell down the stairs," what is God trying to teach me today. And of course I'm sure the Bible professors at Fuller used to make fun of him for having no clue how to read the Bible in its socio-cultural contexts.
Here's a sample:
Integrity checks: “An integrity check is a test that God uses to evaluate intentions in order to shape character” (58). A biblical text that embodies for Clinton this sort of check is the story of Daniel 1 where Daniel has to decide whether to keep Israel’s food purity laws or to participate in the food of Babylon. In Clinton’s view, “God won’t use a leader who lacks integrity” (63).
Clinton has several assumptions here. For example, there is the question of whether God micro-manages our development in such an orchestrated way or whether we should more think of these kinds of events as opportunities for development as leaders that we are bound to face. Another question is Clinton’s penchant to see things as almost having to occur in a particular order.
Further, if God can use the Babylonians and Persians (e.g., Hab. 1:6; Isa. 45:1), then surely God can use anyone, even a leader who lacks integrity. Indeed, Christians reached this conclusion in the 300s during the Donatist controversy, where the church concluded that God's work in a church was not dependent on the integrity of the minister. Obviously God would rather use a leader with integrity. Presumably the days of a leader without integrity are numbered. On the other hand, some of the most wicked kings of Israel and Judah had the longest reigns and died peacefully in their beds (e.g., Jeroboam II and Manasseh).
None of these questions are meant to deny that our integrity as leaders will be checked, that it is important and formative for us to pass these checks with integrity, or that God will not use those checks to help us grow.